Fluoride in Water: children exposed to neurotoxin – mothers be warned!
We intend to be as accurate and thorough as possible in this blog. Therefore, you will find all the information referenced in the text (APA style).
Fluoride can cross the placenta from the mother’s bloodstream and enter the child’s developing brain and central nervous system in the womb. Prolonged ingestion of Fluoride is recognized to cause “significant damage to the central nervous system” (Valdez-Jimenez et al., 2011).
The infant’s brain is in its most rapid phase of development during the third trimester of pregnancy and immediately after birth (Blaylock, 2009; 2007; 2004; Strunecka, Patocka, Blaylock, & Chinoy, 2007). Numerous studies, including an analysis of 27 published peer-reviewed papers by Harvard (Choi et al., 2012), point to the dangers of Fluoride in lowered IQ. Other studies from India, Brazil, Italy and Mexico have corroborated this finding (Chioca, 2008; Bera et al., 2007; Trivedi et al., 2012; Rocha-Amador et al., 2007).
“Water fluoridation delivers a drug to infants at a level which would be gross malpractice if prescribed by a physician or dentist.” David Kennedy (1998), International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT).
In a landmark case dealing with the classification and regulation of ‘functional drinks’ in member states of the European Community, The European Court of Justice decided: Fluoridated water must be treated as a medicine and cannot be used to prepare foods (Warenvertriebs & Orthica, 1995).
“No physician in his right senses would prescribe for a person he has never met, whose medical history he does not know, a substance which is intended to create bodily change, with the advice: ‘Take as much as you like, but you will take it for the rest of your life because some children suffer from tooth decay. ‘ It is a preposterous notion.” (This quote is attributed to Dr Peter Mansfield, a UK physician and advisory board member of the recent UK government review of fluoridation [McDonagh et al. 2000]).
What is Fluoride in water?
Fluoride in water is a byproduct of the superphosphate (fertilizer) industry – contaminated with many other toxins, including lead, arsenic, beryllium, radionuclides, cadmium and mercury (Harms, 2012).
These additional contaminants are not removed from the toxic fluoride residue before being sold to your local council and released into your water supply.
Fluoride is a toxic industrial waste classified as a schedule seven – S7 poison. A banned biocide in Europe, utilized in many prescription drugs, is the main ingredient in rat and cockroach poison. Fluoride accumulates in bone and soft tissues with high calcium concentrations, like the pineal gland (Luke, 1997). The pineal is a light-receptive endocrine gland responsible for the production of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is a monoamine neurotransmitter or mood enhancer) and its derivative melatonin – is essential for sleep (circadian rhythms), regulation of endocrine functions and onset of puberty (Farkas, 1983). The National Research Council stated, “Fluoride is likely to cause decreased melatonin production and to have other effects on normal pineal function, which in turn could contribute to a variety of effects in humans” (NRC, 2006, p. 256).
Fluoride is more toxic than lead and slightly less than arsenic – see graph.
Fluoride is a bio-accumulative poison; only 50% of Fluoride from any source can be excreted from healthy adult kidneys daily. Children can clear much less from their small bodies, retaining up to 80% of ingested Fluoride (Eckstrand, 1981). Athletes, diabetics and consumers living in hot climates all drink above-average amounts of water, thus exposing them to a greater risk of Fluoride toxicity. Those with impaired renal function can excrete less and are also vulnerable.
What is a biocide?
Biocide entered the lexicon in 1947 from bio- + -cide, meaning “destruction of living tissue or living species”. Alternatively, a biocide is defined as “a substance (as DDT) that is destructive to many different organisms” (Encyclopedia Britannica, Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary). Systemic damage from Fluoride occurs to the embryo and the rapidly developing central nervous system in the first few weeks following birth (Blaylock, 2009; Hattersley, 1999).
Current brain/Fluoride research has convinced prominent fetal toxicologist Vyvyan Howard, M.D., PhD to say (we should) “Stop water fluoridation”. Professor Howard is past-President of the International Society of Doctors for the Environment (Beeber, 2011).
Why is our water still being fluoridated?
One reason put forward by Dr Paul Connett is that the ADA (Australian Dental Association) and others, who have been touting fluoride benefits to teeth for the last sixty years, cannot change their position because it would begin a landslide loss of credibility. The Fluoride promoters, with great short-sightedness, fail to understand that their credibility will be in worse tatters retrospectively. Where will their credibility stand when scientists and the informed public reflect on such an informational dark age?
Municipal councils paid for infrastructure (with your tax dollars). In contrast, private water companies paid the Geelong fertilizer industry and even shipped from China and Belgium a European-banned poison – Fluoride to pour into your drinking water, making that water unsafe for everyone. We are paying to be poisoned. And even more shockingly, your government failed to protect you and your unborn child and grandchildren despite overwhelming evidence of Fluorides’ far-ranging toxic effects.
Time Magazine: On April 12, 2010, Time magazine listed Fluoride as one of the “Top Ten Common Household Toxins” and described Fluoride as both “neurotoxic and potentially tumorigenic if swallowed” (Park, 2010).
Fluoride damages the brain: Phyllis Mullenix, PhD, became the first U.S. scientist to find evidence that Fluoride damages the brain; she subsequently lost her job for publishing her animal study in a respected peer-reviewed scientific journal in 1995.
Threat to learning and memory: Valdez-Jimenez et al. describe studies that show Fluoride induces changes in the brain’s physical structure and biochemistry which affects individuals’ neurological and mental development, including cognitive processes, such as learning and memory. “Fluoride is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier, which may cause biochemical and functional changes in the nervous system during pregnancy since the Fluoride accumulates in brain tissue before birth” (Valdez-Jimenez et al., 2011).
Mother’s milk contains, on average, just 0.004 ppm, indicating a strong protective measure to keep Fluoride away from the nursing child. Dr Mercola states that babies fed formula reconstituted with fluoridated drinking water may receive up to 250 times more than the recommended safe level. However, it is doubtful that any level of banned biocide can be deemed safe.
In Australia, the recommended dose in water supplies is 1 part per million (ppm) per litre (equal to 1 milligram per 1 litre of Fluoride in water).
How many Australian mothers are giving their child formula? At birth, “83% of infants are fully breastfed upon discharge from hospital,” indicating that the remaining 17% receive formula. By six months of age, 82% of infants (or approximately 246 000 babies each year) are formula fed, according to a National Health Survey, 2001). These are very concerning statistics.
Awareness of Fluoride in bottled water. Bottled water in Australia may contain up to 1.0 milligrams of Fluoride “(including naturally occurring and added fluoride) per litre of bottled water. This is the same level recommended for drinking water to provide benefits for dental health” (Food Standards Code FSANZ).
According to Brisbane Holistic dentist Dr Rachel Hall, “Babies should not be given fluoridated water. The ‘optimal’ level of 1 ppm is calculated for an average adult, so the dose received by an infant 1/10th of the weight of an adult would be 10 times the ‘optimal’ level.
A newborn baby being bathed in water containing the standard water additives of chloramines, chlorine, and Fluoride absorbs all of these toxins through their skin and mucous membranes into an immature immune system; warm water accelerates the uptake of Fluoride; water is absorbed into the body through inhalation of steam, and by osmosis, for example, an adult absorbs six to ten cups of water in a ten-minute hot shower.
Fluoride in toothpaste
American toothpaste, by law, must have a poison information warning: If swallowed, contact a Poisons Information Centre; please note this is for ingesting a pea-sized amount of toothpaste. A child’s swallowing reflex is not fully developed to the point where they can prevent involuntary swallowing. (We recommend non-fluoridated toothpaste, obtainable from supermarkets and Health Food Stores).
Harvard reports “impact of Fluoride on neurological development in children.”
In a meta-analysis of 27 studies published over 22 years, Harvard School of Public Health (HSPH) and China Medical University in Shenyang found strong indications that Fluoride may adversely affect cognitive development in children.
“The average loss in IQ was reported as equivalent to seven IQ points for commonly used IQ scores.” What this means is that a person classified as of “High Average” intelligence at 110-119 points could have their IQ reduced to merely “Average: 90-109”,; Or a person starting at the average intelligence of 100 would have their IQ potentially lowered into the “80-89, Low Average” range (Wechsler, WAIS–IV) 2012). Most scores cluster around 100, with 68% of people falling within two standard deviations from 84-116 (15 points from the median, Wechsler WAIS–IV, 2008: WISC–IV, WPPSI–IV, 2012 IQ test classification). Although IQ is certainly not the only measure of a child’s future capacity for happiness, success and well-being, few of us would be willing to risk such a substantial loss of one’s birthright potential.
“Some studies suggested that even slightly increased. Fluoride exposure could be toxic to the brain. Thus, children in high-Fluoride areas had significantly lower IQ scores than those in low-Fluoride areas. The children studied were up to 14 years of age. Still, the investigators speculate that any toxic effect on brain development may have happened earlier and that the brain may not be fully capable of compensating for the toxicity”(Choi, Sun, Zhang, & Grandjean, 2012).
Professor Grandjean: “Fluoride seems to fit in with lead, mercury, and other poisons that cause chemical brain drain…The effect of each toxicant may seem small, but the combined damage on a population scale can be serious, especially because the brain power of the next generation is crucial to all of us.”
One outdated idea
Europe has banned Fluoride, so why doesn’t Australia?
The Fluoride promoters are stuck on one idea, which has now been largely discredited, the prevention of tooth decay. According to Canadian dentist and Fluoride opponent Dr Hardy Limeback (2000), it may be a topical solution if Fluoride has any benefits. Some studies have shown that while the teeth in fluoridated populations may be stronger, i.e. on x-ray, they appear to have higher density, they are also more brittle (animal study: Chan et al. 1973; human studies: Haguenauer et al. 2000; National Research Council, 2006; Riggs et al. 1980). The teeth are a window onto the skeletal structure; dental fluorosis is one of the early visible indicators of Fluoride poisoning (Connett, 2010). Dental fluorosis with varying degrees of discolouration and surface pitting of the teeth now affects an astonishing 41% of American children (Heller, Eklund & Burt, 1997). We could not find any statistics for Australian children.
Fluoride in water – is there a solution?
The Government exists to protect the people’s sovereignty and execute the people’s will democratically; that’s why they are called public servants. They are there to serve us, the people, as they are getting paid by us, the people, to do so. They have volunteered to be your personnel, to be at your service to facilitate, administer and execute services.
One of these services is to provide clean, uncontaminated drinking water. This is not being done.
We are not sure how you feel after you read this blog post realizing that children have been exposed to water containing Fluoride. We were furious when we started to learn about it. It felt so disturbing; it was crazy –how could this possibly be true? Initially, it was difficult to fully comprehend that a systematic denial of these risks was occurring in Australia. But after hundreds of hours of research, we realized that it is true and happening without most people’s knowledge.
What can make our drinking water safe?
Two steps first, get your water structured and second, get your water filtered. Choose a filter that will filter out Fluoride. The combination of the two is most likely the best available solution.
Sources, references and notes
Banned Biocide: Declan Waugh’s Blog. http://ffwireland.blogspot.com.au/2012/09/banned-biocidepesticide-used-to.html
Bassin, E. B. (2001). Association between Fluoride in drinking water during growth and development and the incidence of osteosarcoma for children and adolescents. Doctoral Thesis, Harvard School of Dental Medicine. For a Commentary on Elise Bassin’s findings on Fluoride exposure and osteosarcoma, see: Part I: Revisiting the Fluoride-Osteosarcoma connection in the context of Elise Bassin’s findings, Dr Paul Connett, Chris Neurath and Michael Connett submitted to the NRC review panel on the Toxicology of Fluoride in Water March 2, 2005. http://www.Fluoridealert.org/wp-content/uploads/fan-bassin.2006a.pdf
Bassin, E. B., Mittleman, M. A., Wypij, D., Joshipura, K., Douglass, C. W. (2004). Problems in exposure assessment of Fluoride in drinking water. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 64, 45-9.
Blaylock, R. L. (2009). A possible central mechanism in autism spectrum disorders, part 3: the role of excitotoxin food additives and the synergistic effects of other environmental toxins. Alternative Therapies in Health & Medicine, 15(2).
Blaylock, R. L. (2007). Fluoride neurotoxicity and excitotoxicity/microglial activation: a critical need for more research. International Society Fluoride Research, 89-92.
Blaylock, R. L. (2004). Excitotoxicity: a possible central mechanism in fluoride neurotoxicity. Fluoride, 37(4), 301-314.
Beeber, P.: Attorney Paul Beeber, President, NYSCOF.New York State Coalition Opposed to Fluoridation, Inc. (NYSCOF).
Beeber, P. (2011). New study: Fluoride can damage the brain – avoid use in children. http://www.prnewswire.com/news-releases/new-study-Fluoride-can-damage-the-brain—avoid-use-in-children-124299299.html
Bera, I., et al. (2007). Neurofunctional effects of developmental sodium fluoride exposure in rats. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences 11(4): 211-24.
Bryson, C. (2011). The Fluoride deception. Seven Stories Press.
Biocide: Encyclopedia Britannica, Merriam Webster Medical Dictionary. http://www.merriam-webster.com/medical/biocide. Also: Biocide, “destruction of living tissue or living species,” 1947, from bio- + -cide. Biocidal. (n.d.). Online Etymology Dictionary. Retrieved May 07, 2014, from Dictionary.com website: http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/biocidal
Blood brain barrier: Ballabh, P., Braun, A. & Nedergaard, M. (2004). The blood–brain barrier: an overview: structure, regulation, and clinical implications. Neurobiology of disease, 16 (1), 1–13. doi:10.1016/j.nbd.2003.12.016. PMID 15207256.
Bone density: “The weight of evidence indicates that, although fluoride might increase bone volume, there is less strength per unit volume” National Research Council. (2006). Fluoride in drinking water: A scientific review of EPA’s standards. National Academies Press, Washington D.C. p5
Carton, R. (1992), “Fluoridation is the greatest case of scientific fraud of this century, if not of all time.” Robert Carton, PhD, former U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) scientist, on “Marketplace” Canadian Broadcast Company Nov 24, 1992.
Chan, M. M., et al. (1973). Effect of Fluoride on bone formation and strength in Japanese quail, Journal of Nutrition 103: 1431-1440.
Chen, Y. X. & Lin, M. Q. et al. (1996). Relationship between total Fluoride intake and dental fluorosis in areas polluted by airborne Fluoride. Fluoride, 29(1), 7-12.
Chioca, L. R., Raupp, I. M., Da Cunha, C., Losso, E. M., & Andreatini, R. (2008). Subchronic fluoride intake induces impairment in habituation and active avoidance tasks in rats. European journal of pharmacology, 579(1), 196-201.
Choi, A. L., Grandjean, P., Sun, G., & Zhang, Y., (2012). Developmental Fluoride neurotoxicity: A systematic review and meta-analysis, Environmental Health Perspectives, 120(10), 1362-1368. doi: 10.1289/ehp.1104912. http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/wpcontent/uploads/2012/09/ehp.1104912.pdf
Choi, A. L. & Grandjean, P. (2012). Statement on Fluoride paper. Anna Choi, a research scientist in the Department of Environmental Health at HSPH (Harvard School of Public Health), is the lead author. Philippe Grandjean, adjunct professor of environmental health at HSPH, is the senior author. http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/files/2012/07/Media-Statement_Fluoride-9-12-12-Revised2.pdf
Choi, A. L. & Grandjean, P. (2007). Potentials for developmental Fluoride neurotoxicity. XXVIITH Conference of the International Society for Fluoride Research, October 9-12, 2007, Beijing, China.
Clinch, C. A. (2010). Delayed eruption of teeth & time at risk for cavities. Research Coordinator People for Safe Drinking Water. http://www.newmediaexplorer.org/chris/Clinch_2010_Delayed_EruptionAnnotated_Bibliography.pdf
Colquhoun, J. (1997). Why I changed my mind about water fluoridation, Perspectives in Biology and Medicine, 41(1), 29—44.
Connett, P. (2012). Mother’s milk. Citing the National Research Council. 7) The level in mothers’ milk is very low. Considering reason #6 it is perhaps not surprising that the level of Fluoride in mother’s milk is remarkably low (0.004 ppm, NRC, 2006). This means that a bottle-fed baby consuming fluoridated water (0.6 – 1.2 ppm) can get up to 300 times more Fluoride than a breast-fed baby. There are no benefits (see reasons #11-19), only risks (see reasons #21-36), for infants ingesting this heightened level of Fluoride at such an early age (an age where susceptibility to environmental toxins is particularly high). http://Fluoridealert.org/articles/50-reasons/
Connett, P. (2002). The absurdities of water fluoridation. Red Flags Weekly. http://Fluoridealert.org/articles/absurdity/
Connett, P., Beck, J., & Micklem, H. S. (2010). The case against Fluoride: How hazardous waste ended up in our drinking water and the bad science and powerful politics that keep it there. US, Chelsea Green.
Connett, P. (2012). Fifty reasons to avoid Fluoride. http://Fluoridealert.org/articles/50-reasons/
Cross, D. W. & Carton, R. J. (2003). Fluoridation: A violation of medical ethics and human rights. International Journal Of Occupational Environmental Health, 9, 24–29.
Davidson, H. Fluoride row: Byron Bay votes to uphold ban in the water supply. A campaign overshadowed concerns for oral health by local residents and doctors over Fluoride’s safety on Friday, 22 November 2013. The Guardian. http://www.theguardian.com
Dwyer, M. (2012). Impact of Fluoride on neurological development in children. Grandjean, P., & Choi, A. L. (2012). http://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/features/Fluoride-childrens-health-grandjean-choi/
Ekstrand, J., et al. (1981). No evidence of the transfer of Fluoride from plasma to breast milk. British Medical Journal (Clin Res Ed). 83: 761-2.
Enzyme functions: Fluoride poisons enzymes. All the chemical reactions necessary to the life and function of the body depend on enzymes. Continuous depression of enzyme activity by Fluorides produces alterations of function and symptoms of the disease. Professor Hugo Theorell, Nobel Prize winner (Medical Nobel Inst. Biochemist, Dept. of Communication to Royal Medical Board, Sweden, Mar. 1, 1958). http://www.Fluoridedebate.com/question23.html
European countries reject water fluoridation: http://www.Fluoridefreewater.ie/levels.ph.
Farkas, G., et al. (1983). The fluoride content of drinking water and menarcheal age. Acta Universitatis Szegediensis Biologica. 29(1-4): 159-168.
Fluoride effects on the developing child: http://www.wmaf.org.uk/index.php?content=content&parent=42&read=42&keyword=
Fluorotic (fluorosis) a pathological condition resulting from an excessive intake of fluorine (usually from drinking water) http://wordnetweb.princeton.edu/perl/webwn?s=fluorosis
Food Standards Code FSANZ. Fluoride in bottled water. Retrieved May 14 2014. http://www.foodstandards.gov.au/consumer/chemicals/fluoride/Pages/default.aspx
Haguenauer, D., et al. (2000). Fluoride for treating postmenopausal osteoporotic fractures: a meta-analysis. Osteoporosis International 11(9): 727-38.
Hall, R. Retrieved May 8th 2014. http://www.evolvedental.com.au/Fluoride-drinking-water
Harms, A. (2011). Fire Water: Australia’s Industrial Fluoridation Disgrace. Director: Jaya Chela Drolma. Documentary. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XfiCP3HYxFg
Hattersley, J. G. (1999). The case against fluoridation. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine, 14(4), 185-197. http://www.orthomolecular.org/library/jom/1999/articles/1999-v14n04-p185.shtml
Heller, K. E., Eklund, S. A., & Burt, B. A. (1997). Dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying water fluoride concentrations. Journal of Public Health Dentistry, 57(3), 136-143.
Howard, C. V.; Dr C. Vyvyan Howard MB. ChB. PhD. FRCPath. Toxico-Pathologist Institutes of Medicine (1997). Dietary reference intakes for calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, vitamin d, and fluoride: Washington, D.C., National Academy of Sciences.
Incitec Pivot Data Sheet— HYDROFLUOROSILICIC ACID. http://data.rmt.com.au/msds/3082468.pdf
Jones, T., Steelink, C., & Sierka, J. (1994). Analysis of the causes of tooth decay in children in Tucson, Arizona. Paper presented at Annual Meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science, San Francisco, USA, February 1994. Abstract in Fluoride 27(4) 238, 1994.
Kennedy, D. (1998). Water Fluoridation: Delivers a drug to all children under six years of age at a higher dosage than any doctor can currently prescribe. Pediatrics, Vol. 955 Fluoride Supplementation Children: Interim Policy Recommendations (RE 9511). Dr David Kennedy, International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT). IAOMT is a network of dental, medical and research professionals which supports the effort to inform consumers about health risks from water fluoridation.
Li Y, et al. (2003). The effects of endemic Fluoride poisoning on the intellectual development of children in Baotou. Chinese Journal of Public Health Management 19(4):337-338.
Limeback, H. (2002). Systemic Fluoride: Delayed tooth eruption and DMFT vs age profiles. Abstract presented at IADR/AADR/CADR 80th General Session. San Diego, California. March 6-9. University of Toronto, Canada.
Limeback, H. (2000). Why I am officially opposed to adding Fluoride to drinking water. http://Fluoridealert.org/articles/limeback/
Luke, J. (1997). The effect of Fluoride on the physiology of the pineal gland. PhD. Thesis. University of Surrey, Guildford.
Luke, J. (2001). Fluoride deposition in the aged human pineal gland. Caries Research, 35:125-128.
McDonagh, M. S., Whiting, P. F., Wilson, P. M., Sutton, A. J., Chestnutt, I., Cooper, J., … & Kleijnen, J. (2000). Systematic review of water fluoridation. Bmj, 321(7265), 855-859.
Mercola, J. (2013) Fluoridegate—Why is the poisoning of children considered a valuable public health policy? http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/02/16/Fluoridegate-water-fluoridation.aspx
Mercola, J. (2013). How to help Fluoride toxicity. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2013/12/24/Fluoride-toxicity.aspx
Mercola, J. (2012). Harvard Study Confirms Fluoride Reduces Children’s IQ. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2012/08/14/Fluoride-effects-in-children.aspx
Mercola, J. (2011). The daily activity every middle-aged woman should beware of. http://articles.mercola.com/sites/articles/archive/2011/08/13/Fluoride-and-thyroid-dysfunction.aspx
Mullenix, P., Denbesten, P. K., Schunior, A., & Kernans, W. J. (1995). Neurotoxicity of Sodium Fluoride in Rats, Neurotoxicology and Teratology 17:169-177.
Naidoo, S., Norval, G., Swanevelder, S. & Lombard, C. (2006). Foetal alcohol syndrome: A dental and skeletal age analysis of patients and controls. European Journal of Orthodontics. 28(3): 247-253. Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontics Society. doi: 10.1093/ejo/cji109
National Health Survey (2001). (http://www.bottlebabies.org/about/why-is-support-for-bottle-feeding-parents-needed/).
National Research Council (2006). National Research Council of the National Academies review panel on the Toxicologic Risk of Fluoride in Drinking Water, March 21, 2005 (revised April 8, 2005).
Park, A. (2010). Top ten household toxins- Fluoride, Time Magazine, April 1, 2010.
“(The pineal gland) has the highest calcium concentration of any normal soft tissue in the body because it calcifies physiologically in the form of hydroxyapatite (HA). It has a high metabolic activity coupled with a profuse blood supply, favouring the deposition of F (Fluoride) in mineralizing tissues. The fact that the pineal is outside the blood-brain barrier suggests that pineal HA could sequester F from the bloodstream if it has the same strong affinity for F as HA in the other mineralizing tissues. The intensity of the toxic effects of most drugs depends upon their concentration at the site of action.” (Luke, 1997). The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland. PhD. Thesis. University of Surrey, Guildford. p. 1-2, University of Bristol. http://www.chm.bris.ac.uk/motm/serotonin/introduction.htm
Princeton University. http://www.princeton.edu/~achaney/tmve/wiki100k/docs/Serotonin.html
Professionals’ Statement Calling For An End To Water Fluoridation. August 9, 2007. http://www.Fluorideaustralia.org/articleView.asp?Article=6
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“Fluoride is added to our water at the ‘optimal’ dose of 1ppm (equal to 1 mg/l). This dose was set in the 1940s and based on the assumption that the total intake of Fluoride would be 1 mg/day, about 4 glasses of water. However, today Fluoride is also present in virtually everything we consume. A fact that is not considered when determining Fluoride levels in drinking water” Dr Rachel Hall. http://www.evolvedental.com.au/Fluoride-drinking-water
1936. A recommendation from the ADA said:
“Fluorine is a general protoplasmic poison, but the most important symptoms of
chronic fluorine poisoning known at present are mottling of the teeth [Dental Fluorosis]
and interference with bone formation” (American Dental Association, 1936).
It is difficult to work out how a general protoplasmic poison in 1936 can become one of the “10
Most important public health measures of the 20th Century” (Centers for Disease Control, USA,1999) to where concerned parents were advised in 2007 to make up a baby formula with low Fluoride water to one where, in 2011, dentists can recommend fluoridated water while being
cognizant of the potential risks of enamel fluorosis development. http://www.wmaf.org.uk/userfiles/Babies%20-%20ADA%20recommendation.pdf